Second Wind Coffee House Final Research Report

Second Wind’s goal was to broaden their donor base in the Norman Community. We narrowed down their target audience to be University of Oklahoma students. By conducting primary research through surveys and in-depth interviews as well as compiling information from secondary sources, we were able to outline specific strategies and tactics. These strategies focus on transparency and coordination among all social platforms to ensure consistency and awareness about the brand.

To view the full report, visit the link below

Executive Summary

We began our research for Second Wind by performing secondary research. This initial research allowed us to gain insight on the coffee shop’s situation as well as internal and external factors influencing the success of the organization. In regards to internal factors, we researched the nonprofit’s niche, structure, performance, strengths and weaknesses. For the external factors, we researched the supporters, competitors, limiters and enablers. In addition, in the secondary research we had the opportunity to take a closer look at the key public. We researched demographics, psychographics, communication habits and the opinions of the public. This research allowed us to take the first step in understanding Second Wind by collecting data from previous research.

After conducting secondary research, we began primary research with in-depth interviews and surveys. The main goal for conducting primary research was to gain a better understanding of our key public regarding their awareness of Second Wind, communication styles, donation habits and overall any specific details worthy of noting. Without personalized research methods, we wouldn’t be able to identify the specific needs of Second Wind’s key public. 

The in-depth interview questions focused on asking the participants what their connection was to Second Wind, if any. We also wanted to gather information on their spending habits, ideal study environment, donation habits, social media frequency and their personal values. The in-depth interview allowed the participants to speak thoroughly about their perception of Second Wind and what they value when determining participation with a nonprofit. 

The main goal of the survey was to find statistical data on Second Wind’s key public. We discovered information regarding demographics, religious affiliation,  income and education level. In addition, we asked the respondents specific questions and statements regarding social media usage, communication preferences, awareness level and donation habits. Overall, this information gave respondents the opportunity to rank statements and express their opinions, which gave more insight on Second Wind’s public. 

The findings and suggestions consist of the main themes discovered after primary and secondary research. After the secondary research, in-depth interviews and surveys, we found correlations and similar findings that were relevant to the nonprofit. In addition, we listed suggestions for the organization’s website, strategy and tactics that will greatly improve Second Wind’s connection with its key public and increase donations.

Survey and Analysis


This survey asked specific questions directed toward Second Wind Coffeehouse. The results will allow us to determine the behaviors and preferences of Second Wind’s public. More specifically, we hope to gain statistical data on potential donors’ expectations and habits regarding nonprofit organizations. In addition, we wanted to learn the social media habits of our key public and the platforms they use most frequently. This information will help us gain a more thorough understanding of the changes Second Wind needs to make in order to better serve their audience and increase donations. 

RQ1: What is the awareness level of Second Wind’s key public?

RQ2: What factor makes it most difficult to donate?

RQ3: How often do you use these social media platforms?

RQ4: What factors are important when considering donating?

RQ5: How do you prefer nonprofits to communicate with you?

Design & Participants 

Using a survey allowed the researchers to gather detailed information about attitudes and habits from a specific population quickly and in a cost-effective way (Zhang, 2021). We used an internet survey, which is useful for convenience for the respondent and less expensive (Zhang, 2021). In addition, we used a non probability and convenience sampling technique by sending the survey to nearby members of Second Wind’s public, which included students and non-students. The sample size was 404, with 389 completed surveys. There were 237 students and 152 non-students. The survey took an average of 11 minutes for the respondents to complete, which was collected between Oct. 28 and Nov. 7. 

Of the 237 student potential donors who participated in the survey, the majority of the respondents were women (74.37%), white (68.07%), and they preferred not to disclose their household income (24.47%). Majority of this sample are students at the University of Oklahoma (97.06%) and are seniors in college (42.86%). Of the 152 non-student potential donors, the majority of the respondents were women (66.67%), white (67.97%), highest level of education being a four-year college (42.11%) and (18.42%) having a household income between $100,000 and $150,000. With both samples, (59.64%) having lived in Norman between 1-5 years and (M=26.30, SD=10.94) being the average participant age. 

RQ1: What is the awareness level of Second Wind’s public?

The purpose in asking this question was to find out what our key public’s initial awareness was of Second Wind. This was an important insight to gain because those key publics cannot donate to the coffee shop if they don’t know what it is. For this question, we asked participants to select which level of familiarity they had with Second Wind. Our survey found that 184 (47.30%) of our respondents did not have any familiarity with Second Wind at all. The level of familiarity went down methodically after that with another 94 (24.16%) reporting they were slightly familiar, 65 (16.71%) were moderately familiar, 29 (7.46%) very familiar, and only 17 (4.37%) of our respondents stating they were extremely familiar with the coffee shop. Based on these findings, we can conclude that Second Wind has a major visibility problem.                                 

RQ2: What factor makes it most difficult for you to donate?

We wanted to find out what the pain points were for Second Wind’s donors. To find out what some limiters are, we asked our participants what factors make it difficult to donate to Second Wind. Based on our survey findings, the top two factors limiting donations are financial difficulties and donors not knowing how their money will be used. Our survey found that 270 (69.41%) of our respondents say that finances are what makes donating difficult and 90 (23.14%) of our respondents answered that they don’t know where their donations are going. 

RQ3: How often do you use the following social media platforms        

We asked our participants to rate how frequently they used Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Youtube, Tiktok, Snapchat and LinkedIn. The likert scale used to measure the participants’ usage of each social media platform consisted of five responses: “Never,” “Rarely,” “Occasionally,” “Frequently” and “Very Frequently.” The most used social media platform was Instagram, with 43.19% of our respondents rating their usage of Instagram as “very frequently.” Instagram was followed by Tiktok (37.02%), Snapchat (35.22%), Youtube (20.05%), Facebook (20.05%), Twitter (18.25%) and LinkedIn (6.17%) on being rated “Very Frequently.” Based on these statistics, we can conclude that our key public likely uses Instagram, Tiktok and Snapchat more frequently than other social media platforms. We can also see a significant decrease in the amount of people that use LinkedIn because 39.07% of our participants said they never use this platform.

RQ4: What factors are important when considering donating?

We wanted to discover what factors our respondents considered when donating to a nonprofit organization. To find out this information, we asked them to rank a number of statements of importance when determining if they will make a donation. Our survey found that 107 (26.95%) respondents ranked how a donation will be used as extremely important. Also, 113 (28.46%) respondents ranked who will benefit from the donation as extremely important. These two responses were the highest factors that our respondents value. 

RQ5: How do you prefer nonprofits to communicate with you?

We wanted to determine how Second Wind’s key public preferred to communicate with nonprofits. To find this out, we asked respondents to rank a number of channels, such as social media, in-person events, emails, websites, etc. Our survey found that social media and in-person events were the highest channels of communication that the key public prefers. In the results, social media was the highest with 110 (28.06%) respondents stating they strongly agree with social media being their preferred channel of communication. In addition, in-person events came in second with 102 (26.02%) respondents stating this as their preferred communication method, ranking as strongly in agreement. 

Inferential Statistics

Relationship between religious affiliation and donating to a religious nonprofit

We wanted to discover if there was a relationship between religious affiliation and donations to Second Wind. The chart above shows the responses to asking the level of agreement to the statement, “I will donate to a nonprofit organization with a religious affiliation.” According to the responses, 46 (11.83%) respondents strongly disagreed with the statement and 59 (15.17%) strongly agreed, (M=4.24, SD=1.84). With additional tests, we discovered that there is a negative relationship between religiosity and donating to a religious nonprofit (r=-.50 p< .05). 

Relationship between the number of years lived in Norman and community involvement

We wanted to discover if the number of years people lived in Norman played a role in their likelihood to participate in the community and donate to local nonprofits. The majority of the respondents, 232 (59.64%), stated that they lived in Norman between 1-5 years, which was the highest response. However, with additional tests we discovered that there is no relationship between the number of years lived in Norman and community involvement (r=.05, n.s.).


Awareness Summary

The survey findings regarding awareness suggests that the tactics Second Wind are using to reach its key public is not effective. The majority of the respondents were not familiar with the coffee shop, which is concerning since the survey sample included a large number of OU students. In addition, these findings suggest that the community doesn’t feel a connection to the coffee shop due to the lack of effective outreach to ensure the key public knows what the mission is and how they can get involved. Overall, the awareness findings indicate that Second Wind needs to make major changes in its approach in attracting donations, volunteers and customers.

Perceptions Summary

The findings that financial difficulties and the lack of knowledge on where donations go are factors impacting the donor’s likelihood to make contributions to Second Wind. Although donors’ financial limitations can be a limiter, this is also an opportunity for Second Wind to emphasize its pay-what-you-can system to the public. Second Wind makes it easy for those who might not be able to make a large donation to give in a more realistic way based on their budget. Since a large amount of Second Wind’s donations are made through selling coffee through recommended prices, the coffee shop needs to better communicate its pay-what-you-can system so that their key public doesn’t have to worry about financial obstacles.  

The second cause of difficulty for donors is that they don’t know where their donation is going. This is an issue for Second Wind, but can easily be fixed if the nonprofit becomes more transparent. Informing donors on where their money is going is important so that the donors see their donation is making a difference. Examples of informing donors is updating Second Wind’s mission statement to accurately summarize the vision and goals for the donations. Also, keeping their social media platforms infiltrated with updates on projects and organizations being affected by the donations. In addition, making an email list and sending newsletters with facts and information regarding contributions and the impact they made in the past month. 

Overall, Second Wind’s target audience, OU students, don’t have the means to make large donations. However, OU students are one of the top markets for coffee shops in Norman and the pay-what-you-can system makes it simple for students to donate what they can afford. In order to receive maximum donations posible, Second Wind should emphasize that any donation is a valuable one and that there is not a minimum donation required. In addition, to ensure potential donors feel comfortable making donations, Second Wind needs to clarify its mission and express that to the public.

Behavior Summary

The survey findings regarding social media use, specific platform frequency and social media being a preferred way of communication suggests that Second Wind should increase its social media presence to connect with its key public. While it is beneficial for the coffee shop to market themselves on all platforms, they should aim to heavily promote their brand and mission on Instagram and Tiktok, which were rated the highest. Second Wind’s Instagram account could be improved by posting more frequently and implementing a consistent brand voice.By using all the features that Instagram has to offer, such as IGTV, stories, reels and live videos, Second Wind has the opportunity to share its mission and form a relationship with members of the Norman community. TikTok is another platform that should be utilized by Second Wind to share its mission. TikTok is a great way to reach a diverse audience and market yourself to a large group of people. There are also a lot of opportunities for creative freedom while using this platform. By participating in TikTok trends, using popular sounds, and taking advantage of the hashtag feature, Second Wind could attract new customers and donors. In addition, the survey results showing that in-person events are the second preferred communication method suggests that Second Wind should continue outreach on campus and have multiple events. It is vital that Second Wind takes advantage of social media platforms and in-person events to share its mission and create more awareness. 

Inferential Statistics Summary

In addition, the findings regarding the negative relationship between religiosity and donating to a religious nonprofit suggest that people who are religious are most likely donating to their churches, so they aren’t making additional donations to nonprofit organizations. Also, this suggests that people aren’t hesitant to donate to Second Wind because of its connection with First Presbyterian Church and religious affiliation doesn’t play a factor in donations. Lastly, the survey findings of there being no relationship between the number of years lived in Norman and community involvement suggests that Second Wind can receive donations and help from members of the community despite the number of years they’ve lived in Norman. The willingness to participate in the community doesn’t depend on the number of years lived in the nearby area. This increases the types of people Second Wind can interact with to fulfill its mission.

Discussion and Suggestions


Mission transparency is important to the key public 

Based on our findings from the in-depth interview and survey, knowing where the donation is going is very important to Second Wind’s key public. In the survey, the respondents were given a list of statements regarding donations and ranking them of importance. The statements were how the donation will be used, who will benefit from my donation, multiple ways to donate and flexibility in amount. Out of the 389 responses, how will the donation be used and who will benefit from the donation were ranked as most important. Our survey found that 107 (26.95%) respondents ranked how a donation will be used as extremely important. Also, 113 (28.46%) respondents ranked who will benefit from the donation as extremely important. In addition, the participants in the interview were asked what characteristics of a nonprofit make you want to make donations. One participant said “If I can see that there is a clear and communal element to that nonprofit, and seeing the impact of local people involved with these things, then I will be more willing to donate.” The interviewees expressed that they like to see how an organization is directly impacting the community. This correlation suggests that Second Wind needs to ensure its mission and impact is clearly displayed and easily known. 

Second Wind’s key public prefers to communicate using social media and in-person events

Based on our findings from the survey and in-depth interviews, we discovered that Second Wind’s key public prefers to communicate with nonprofits through social media and in-person events. In the survey, the participants were given a list of different communication channels and asked to rate which one they preferred to use. The two highest methods were social media 110 (28.02%) participants and in-person events, which was 102 (26.22%) responses. In addition, participants in the interview also stated that they prefer to communicate and learn about opportunities through in-person events and social media. One participant stated that “Most of the information I receive from Second Wind is through my student email, but I never look at it because OU sends hundreds of emails a day and I spend a lot of time on Twitter because that’s where I get a lot of my news now.” Also, another participant stated “I think tabling at campus events is a huge advantage especially since OU has such a huge pool to bring awareness to your cause.” Overall, this finding suggests that the best way for Second Wind to communicate with its public is to use social media and interact with people through in-person events. 

Second Wind’s key public has a low awareness level 

Based on our findings from the survey and in-depth interview, we discovered that Second Wind’s key public has a low awareness level of the coffee shop. In the interview we asked participants what their connection was to Second Wind and many of them expressed that they’ve either never heard of the coffee shop or were slightly familiar with the organization. One participant stated “I saw Second Wind once on Instagram and Facebook, but hadn’t been inside.” In addition, in the survey we asked respondents to rate their level of familiarity with the nonprofit with 184 (47.30%) of our respondents did not have any familiarity with Second Wind  and 94 (24.16%) reporting they were slightly familiar. Overall, this finding suggests that the current strategies Second Wind is using to communicate with its key public is not performing well and there are major improvements needed.


Our key public, potential OU student donors, are a promising target. Based on interviews, surveys and secondary research, we found that these students want to give to their community. With that being said, it’s important that Second Wind makes its mission clear and is transparent on the organizations they are giving to. Because of Second Wind’s proximity to campus, there is opportunity to be even more involved with campus clubs and organizations.The use of social media can be used to target the key public and keep them informed on what Second Wind’s impact on the Norman area. These tools can also be used to bring in more donations by promoting new drinks at the shop and short reads like “volunteer of the week.” Keeping the public updated and included not only has the capability to spread awareness but also forms a brand personality for  the organization. 

Second Wind’s website should be updated with upcoming events, new blog posts and information about their current volunteers. The website could provide significantly more insight into the mission of Second Wind and how the organization operates, so there needs to be more information added to the website. Adding search terms that relate to the philanthropic aspect of Second Wind, such as “nonprofit,” would help with Second Wind’s SEO. In terms of their social media platforms, Second Wind should aim to post consistently and often. The coffee shop should also aim to create a consistent brand voice among all of their social media platforms. 

A suggestion for posting regularly and creating a consistent image is to designate a specific person to social media so that it’s receiving the necessary attention. Overall, to improve Second Wind’s channels of communication, the coffee shop needs to dedicate time to each platform and research other businesses to ensure they are a valid competitor and actively engaging with its public.

For internal publics, Second Wind should assign employees to specific tasks to ensure all aspects of their brand are being equally addressed. The director, Emily Tucker, stated that social media content isn’t a major priority and the task isn’t one person’s responsibility (Personal Communication, 2021). In addition, the coffee shop should increase its social media presence and consistency to create a better relationship with its key public and increase awareness of Second Wind’s upcoming events and mission. As we discovered in the social media audit, Second Wind competitors have strong social media strategies. To increase social media engagement, we suggest the coffee shop post consistently, include its key public in content and use local competitors’ social media as a benchmark or for inspiration. 

The external public, community members and local businesses, have a lot of potential when it comes to outreach and donors. Norman is a town that is becoming more and more supportive of small business. In order to get more community members in the door thus leading to donations, hosting a community event targeted at college grads, people in the workforce, and even members of the first prespeterian church could be a strategic way to attract a demographic that is not solely college students. Like students, other community members need to know where their donations are going. This public specifically are people who have been in the Norman community for a long time. Because of this, it’s important to have a clear mission and ways to keep them informed on how their donation is making an impact. Our suggestion is to actively use social media, email lists and the website. As for other local businesses, a partnership on an event could be a good way to spread awareness of Second Wind. For example, Second Wind could give coffee away and accept donations at a business like Human Interaction. Another example is having another business attend an event like open mic night and provide their product. Overall, we suggest that Second Wind discuss as an organization different ways they can interact with the Norman community as whole and make relationships with nearby businesses, which in the end will help Second Wind grow. 

A strategy and tactic we recommend for Second Wind is to perform audits of its competitors not only on social media but also events. This is a great way to see how a competitor is communicating with its public and identify strategies they can apply to their own organization. Additional future recommendations we have for Second Wind is doing research on marketing and what strategies are performing well for businesses in the world. Being able to identify the current trends and strategies will prove to be beneficial to the coffee shop in the long run. Taking the initiative and being proactive so that they never fall behind is a great way to keep a continuous level of growth.

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